State-Of-The-Art Reports

Monday, May 3, 2021

15:00 – 16:20

We review recent methods in 2D creative pattern generation and their control mechanisms, focusing on procedural methods. The review is motivated by an artist’s perspective and investigates interactive pattern generation as a complex design problem. While the repetitive nature of patterns is well-suited to algorithmic creation and automation, an artist needs more flexible control mechanisms for adaptable and inventive designs. We organize the state of the art around pattern design features, such as repetition, frames, curves, directionality, and single visual accents. Within those areas, we summarize and discuss the techniques’ control mechanisms for enabling artist intent. The discussion includes questions of how input is given by the artist, what type of content the artist inputs, where the input affects the canvas spatially, and when input can be given in the timeline of the creation process. We categorize the available control mechanisms on an algorithmic level and categorize their input modes based on exemplars, parameterization, handling, filling, guiding, and placing interactions. To better understand the potential of the current techniques for creative design and to make such an investigation more manageable, we motivate our discussion with how navigation, transparency, variation, and stimulation enable creativity. We conclude our review by identifying possible new directions that can inspire innovation for artist-centered creation processes and algorithms.

Lena Gieseke, Paul Asente, Radomir Mech, Bedrich Benes, Martin Fuchs
16:40 – 18:00

Curve reconstruction from unstructured points in a plane is a fundamental problem with many applications that has generated research interest for decades. Involved aspects like handling open, sharp, multiple and non-manifold outlines, run-time and provability as well as potential extension to 3D for surface reconstruction have led to many different algorithms. We survey the literature on 2D curve reconstruction and then present an open-sourced benchmark for the experimental study. Our unprecedented evaluation of a selected set of planar curve reconstruction algorithms aims to give an overview of both quantitative analysis and qualitative aspects for helping users to select the right algorithm for specific problems in the field. Our benchmark framework is available online to permit reproducing the results and easy integration of new algorithms.

Stefan Ohrhallinger, Jiju Peethambaran, Amal Dev Parakkat, Tamal Krishna Dey, Ramanathan Muthugananapathy

Tuesday, May 4, 2021

10:00 – 11:20

An assembly refers to a collection of parts joined together to achieve a specific form and/or functionality. Designing assemblies is a non-trivial task as a slight local modification on a part’s geometry or its joining method could have a global impact on the structural and/or functional performance of the whole assembly. Assemblies can be classified as structures that transmit force to carry loads and mechanisms that transfer motion and force to perform mechanical work. In this state-of-the-art report, we focus on computational design of structures with rigid parts, which generally can be formulated as a geometric modeling and optimization problem. We broadly classify existing computational design approaches, mainly from the computer graphics community, according to high-level design objectives, including fabricability, structural stability, reconfigurability, and tileability. Computational analysis of various aspects of assemblies is an integral component in these design approaches. We review different classes of computational analysis and design methods, discuss their strengths and limitations, make connections among them, and propose possible directions for future research.

Ziqi Wang, Peng Song, Mark Pauly
15:00 – 16:20

We present a review of methods for procedurally generating the morphology of virtual creatures. We include a range of methods, with the main groups being from ALife over art to video games. Even though at times these groups overlap, for clarity we have kept this distinction. By including the word virtual, we mean that we focus on methods for simulation in silico, and not physical robots. We also include a historical perspective, with information on methods such as cellular automata, L-systems and a focus on earlier pioneers in the field.

Gorm Lai, Frederic Fol Leymarie, William Latham, Takaya Arita, Reiji Suzuki

Wednesday, May 5, 2021

15:00 – 16:20

Ray tracing is an inherent part of photorealistic image synthesis algorithms. The problem of ray tracing is to find the nearest intersection with a given ray and scene. Although this geometric operation is relatively simple, in practice, we have to evaluate billions of such operations as the scene consists of millions of primitives, and the image synthesis algorithms require a high number of samples to provide a plausible result. Thus, scene primitives are commonly arranged in spatial data structures to accelerate the search. In the last two decades, the bounding volume hierarchy (BVH) has become the de facto standard acceleration data structure for ray tracing-based rendering algorithms in offline and recently also in real-time applications. In this report, we review the basic principles of bounding volume hierarchies as well as advanced state of the art methods with a focus on the construction and traversal. Furthermore, we discuss industrial frameworks, specialized hardware architectures, other applications of bounding volume hierarchies, best practices, and related open problems.

Daniel Meister, Shinji Ogaki, Carsten Benthin, Michael Doyle, Michael Guthe, Jiří Bittner

Thursday, May 6, 2021

15:00 – 16:20

Image synthesis designed for machine learning applications provides the means to efficiently generate large quantities of training data while controlling the generation process to provide the best distribution and content variety. With the demands of deep learning applications, synthetic data have the potential of becoming a vital component in the training pipeline. Over the last decade, a wide variety of training data generation methods has been demonstrated. The potential of future development calls to bring these together for comparison and categorization. This survey provides a comprehensive list of the existing image synthesis methods for visual machine learning. These are categorized in the context of image generation, using a taxonomy based on modelling and rendering, while a classification is also made concerning the computer vision applications they are used. We focus on the computer graphics aspects of the methods, to promote future image generation for machine learning. Finally, each method is assessed in terms of quality and reported performance, providing a hint on its expected learning potential. The report serves as a comprehensive reference, targeting both groups of the applications and data development sides. A list of all methods and papers reviewed herein can be found at .

Apostolia Tsirikoglou, Gabriel Eilertsen, Jonas Unger

Friday, May 7, 2021

10:00 – 11:20

Over the last forty years, researchers in computer graphics have proposed a large variety of theoretical models and computer implementations of a virtual film director, capable of creating movies from minimal input such as a screenplay or storyboard. The underlying film directing techniques are also in high demand to assist and automate the generation of movies in computer games and animation. The goal of this survey is to characterize the spectrum of applications that require film directing, to present a historical and up-to-date summary of research in algorithmic film directing, and to identify promising avenues and hot topics for future research.

Rémi Ronfard
11:40 – 13:00

The real-time simulation of human crowds has many applications. Simulating how the people in a crowd move through an environment is an active and ever-growing research topic. Most research focuses on microscopic (or ‘agent-based’) crowdsimulation methods that model the behavior of each individual person, from which collective behavior can then emerge. This state-of-the-art report analyzes how the research on microscopic crowd simulation has advanced since the year 2010. We focus on the most popular research area within the microscopic paradigm, which is local navigation, and most notably collision avoidance between agents. We discuss the four most popular categories of algorithms in this area (force-based, velocity-based, vision-based, and data-driven) that have either emerged or grown in the last decade. We also analyze the conceptual and computational (dis)advantages of each category. Next, we extend the discussion to other types of behavior or navigation (such as group behavior and the combination with path planning), and we review work on evaluating the quality of simulations. Based on the observed advancements in the 2010s, we conclude by predicting how the research area of microscopic crowd simulation will evolve in the future. Overall, we expect a significant growth in the area of data-driven and learning-based agent navigation, and we expect an increasing number of methods that re-group multiple ‘levels’ of behavior into one principle. Furthermore, we observe a clear need for new ways to analyze (real or simulated) crowd behavior, which is important for quantifying the realism of a simulation and for choosing the right algorithms at the right time.

Wouter van Toll, Julien Pettré
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